Повышение клиентоориентированных продаж с помощью анализа неудач и усилий по исправлению ситуации: основа и призыв к действию
Гонзалез Г., Ноффман Д., Инграм Т.

Анализ неудач и усилия по исправлению ситуации;
Навыки, необходимые для проведения анализа неудач, выбора и осуществления стратегии исправления ситуации;
Отслеживание, мониторинг и оценка
Призыв к действию;

Ключевые слова: анализ неудач, усилия по исправлению ситуации, долгосрочные отношения, культура продаж


Хотя клиентоориентированные продажи должны основываться на долгосрочных взаимовыгодных отношениях между продавцом и покупателем, необходимо учитывать еще два важных аспекта: анализ ошибок продавца и его усилия по исправлению ситуации. Продавцам следует овладеть навыками в
пяти взаимосвязанных областях: выявление ошибок; их атрибуция; выбор стратегии исправления; ее осуществление; отслеживание, мониторинг и оценка эффективности.

Журнал: «Управление продажами» — №2, 2007 (© Издательский дом Гребенников)
Объем в страницах: 14
Кол-во знаков: около 34,169

1. Adams J. S. (1963). Toward an Understanding of Inequity. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 67(5), pp. 422–36.

2. AMA Briefing. (1991). Blueprints for Service Quality: The Federal Express Approach. New York, American Management Association.

3. Behrman D. N. and Perreault W. D., Jr. (1984). A Role Stress Model of the Performance and Satisfaction of Industrial Salesperson’s. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 48 (Fall), pp. 9–21.

4. Bitner M. J. (1990). Evaluating Service Encounters: The Effects of Physical Surroundings and Employee Responses. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54 (April), pp. 69–82.

5. Bitner M. J., Booms B. H., and Mohr L. A. (1994). Critical Service Encounters: The Employee’s Viewpoint. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58 (October), pp. 95–106.

6. Bitner M. J., Booms B. H., and Tetreault M. S. (1990). The Service Encounter: Diagnosing Favorable and Unfavorable Incidents. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54 (January), pp. 71–84.

7. Chonko L. B., Dubinsky A. J., Jones E., and Roberts J. A. (2003). Organizational and Individual Learning in the Sales Force. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 56 (December), pp. 935–946.

8. Churchill G. A., Jr., Ford N. M., Walker O. C., Jr., Johnston M. W. , and Tanner J. F. , Jr. (2000). Sales Force Management, 6th ed., Boston, McGraw-Hill / Irwin.

9. Dwyer F. R., Schurr P. H., and Oh S. (1987). Developing Buyer–Seller Relationships. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51 (April), pp. 11–27.

10. Etzel M. J., and Silverman B. I. (1981). A Managerial Perspective on Directions for Retail Customer Dissatisfaction Research. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 57 (Fall), pp. 124–136.

11. Folkes V. S. (1984). Consumer Reactions to Product Failure: An Attributional Approach. Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 10(4), pp. 398–409.

12. Frankwick G. L., Porter S. S., and Crosby L. A. (2001). Dynamics of Relationship Selling: A Longitudinal Examination of Changes in Salesperson-Customer Relationship Status. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol. 21(2) (Spring), pp. 135–146.

13. Goodwin C. and Ross I. (1992). Consumer Responses to Service Failures: Influence of Procedural and Interactional Fairness Perceptions. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 25(2), pp. 149–163.

14. Gremler D. and Bitner M. J. (1992). Classifying Service Encounter Satisfaction Across Industries. In: Allen C. T. and Thomas J. Madden T. J. (Eds). Marketing Theory and Applications. Chicago, American Marketing Association, pp. 111–118.

15. Hart Ch. W. L., Heskett J. L., and Sasser E. W., Jr. (1990). The Profitable Art of Service Recovery. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 68 (July–August), pp. 148–156.

16. Hartline M. D., Maxham J. G., III, and McKee D. O. (2000). Corridors of Influence in the Dissemination of Customer-Oriented Strategy to Customer Contact Service Employees. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 64 (April), pp. 35–50.

17. Heskett J. L., Jones T. O., Loveman G. W., Sasser E. W., Jr., and Schlesinger L. A. (1994). Putting the Service-Profit Chain to Work. Harvard Business Review, Vol. 72 (March–April), pp. 164–174.

18. Hoffman K. D. and Chung B. (1999). Hospitality Recovery Strategies: Customer Preference Versus Firm Use. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, Vol. 23(1), pp. 71–84.

19. Hoffman K. D. and Kelley S. W. (1996). Guidelines for Developing Retail Recovery Strategies. In: Wilson E. J. and Hair J. F. , Jr. (Eds). Developments in Marketing Science, Phoenix, Academy of Marketing Science, 123.

20. Hoffman K. D., Kelley S. W. , and Mitchell L. A. (1998). Future Research Directions in Service Recovery. In: Goodstein R. C. and MacKenzie S. B. (Eds). Enhancing Knowledge Development in Marketing, Boston, American Marketing Association Summer Educators’ Conference, pp. 154–160.

21. Hoffman K. D., Kelley S. W., and Rotalsky H. (1995). Tracking Service Failures and Employee Recovery Efforts. Journal of Service Marketing, Vol. 9(2), pp. 49–61.

22. Ingram T. N. (1996). Relationship Selling: Moving from Rhetoric to Reality. Mid-American Journal of Business, Vol. 11 (Spring), pp. 5–13.

23. Ingram T. N., LaForge R. W., and Leigh T. W. (2002). Selling in the New Millennium: A Joint Agenda. Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 31 (October), pp. 560–567.

24. Ingram T. N., LaForge R. W., Avila R. A., Schwepker Ch. H., Jr., and Williams M. R. (2004). Professional Selling: A Trust-Based Approach. 2nd ed., Cincinnati, Thomson / Southwestern.

25. Is Customer Retention Worth the Time, Effort and Expense? (1991). Sales & Marketing Management, Vol. 143(15) (December), pp. 20–22.

26. Johnson J. T., Barksdale H. C., Jr., and Boles J. S. (2001). The Strategic Role of the Salesperson in Reducing Customer Defection in Business Relationships. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol. 21(2) (Spring), pp. 123–134.

27. Johnston M. W. and Marshall G. W. (2005). Relationship Selling and Sales Management, Boston, McGraw-Hill / Irwin.

28. Johnston T. C. and Hewa M. A. (1997). Fixing Service Failures. Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 26 (September), pp. 467–473.

29. Jolson M. A. (1997) Broadening the Scope of Relationship Selling. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol. 17(4) (Fall), pp. 75–88.

30. Kelley S. W. , Hoffman K. D., and Davis M. A. (1993). A Typology of Retail Failures and Recoveries. Journal of Retailing, Vol. 69(4) (Winter), pp. 429–451.

31. Leigh T. W. and Marshall G. W. (2001). Research Priorities in Sales Strategy and Performance. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol. 21(2) (Spring), pp. 83–93.

32. Mansfield Ph. M. and Warwick J. (2000). The Impact of Post-Complaint Satisfaction with the Salesperson, Retailer, and Manufacturer on Relationship Commitment. In: Gundlach G. T. and Murphy P. E. (Eds). Proceedings of the American Marketing Association’s Summer Educators’ Conference, Chicago, American Marketing Association, pp. 204–205.

33. Marshall G. W., Goebel D. J., and Moncrief W. C. (2003). Hiring for Success at the Buyer–Seller Interface. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 6 (January), pp. 66–83.

34. Maxham J. G., III (2001). Service Recovery’s Influence on Consumer Satisfaction: Positive Word-of-Mouth, and Purchase Intentions. Journal of Business Research, Vol. 6(1), pp. 66–83.

35. Maxham J. G., III and Netemeyer R. G. (2003). Firms Reap What They Sow: The Effects of Shared Values and Perceived Organizational Justice on Customers’ Evaluations of Complaint Handling. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 67(1), pp. 46–62.

36. Netemeyer R. G., Johnston M. W., and Burton S. (1990). Analysis of Role Conflict and Ambiguity in a Structural Equations Framework. Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 75 (April), pp. 148–157.

37. Sager J. K. (1994). A Structural Model Depicting Salespeople’s Job Stress. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 22 (Winter), pp. 74–85.

38. Schrage M. (2001). Make No Mistake? Fortune, Vol. 144(13) (December 24), p. 184.

39. Schwepker Ch. H., Jr. (2003). Customer-Oriented Selling: A Review, Extension, and Directions for Future Research. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol. 23(2) (Spring), pp. 151–171.

40. Shepherd C. D. (1999). Service Quality and the Sales Force: A Tool for Competitive Advantage. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol. 19(3) (Summer), pp. 73–82.

41. Sheppard B. H., Lewicki R. J., and Minton J. W. (1992). Organizational Justice: The Search for Fairness in the Workplace, New York, Macmillan.

42. Smith A. K., Bolton R. N., and Wagner J. (1999). A Model of Customer Satisfaction with Service Encounters Involving Failure and Recovery. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 36 (August), pp. 356–373.

43. Swanson S. R., and Kelley S. W. (2001). Attributions and Outcomes of the Service Recovery Process. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 9(4), pp. 50–66.

44. Tax S. S., Brown S. W., and Chandrashekaran M. (1998). Customer Evaluations of Service Complaint Experiences: Implications for Relationship Marketing. Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 62 (April), pp. 60–76.

45. Weiner B. (1980). A Cognitive (Attribution)-Emotion-Action Model of Motivated Behavior: An Analysis of Judgments of Help-Giving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 39 (February), pp. 186–200.

46. Weitz B. A. and Bradford K. D. (1999). Personal Selling and Sales Management: A Relationship Marketing Perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 27 (Spring), pp. 241–254.

47. Widmier S. and Jackson D. W. , Jr. (2002). Examining the Effects of Service Failure, Customer Compensation, and Fault on Customer Satisfaction with Salespeople. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 10 (Winter), pp. 63–73.

48. Williams M. R. and Attaway J. S. (1996). Exploring Salesperson’s Customer Orientation as a Mediator of Organizational Culture’s Influence on Buyer–Seller Relationships. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, Vol. 16(4) (Fall), pp. 33–52.

Гонзалез Габриэль Р.

Ассистент-профессор маркетинга Бизнес Колледжа Университета штата Колорадо (США).

Ноффман Дуглас К.

Профессор маркетинга Бизнес Колледжа Университета штата Колорадо (США).

Инграм Томас Н.

Профессор маркетинга и бизнес-администрации Бизнес Колледжа Университета штата Колорадо (США).